Saturday, February 27, 2016

Jimmy Carter 1976- World To Run Out of Petro in 35 Years

This was the general type of mindset that was used to 'de-map' the Washington, D.C. Freeway system during the 1970s, as displayed in this November 13, 1973 letter by Peter S. Craig on behalf of the "Committee of 100 on The Federal City" to D.C. Mayor Walter E. Washington, regarding the proposed I-695 South Leg Freeway to connect I-66 with the SW Freeway:
. ... This request is made because, from my review of the “Combined Corridor and Design Report”, it is obvious that Mr. Airis is proceeding from demonstrably erroneous or obsolete premises, errors that would be manifest if there were an adequate hearing. For example, his report proceeds from the assumption that there will be a 50 percent increase in area population by 1990 with a 100 percent increase in auto travel. Such an assumption is incredible in the face of (1) recent actions by EPA under the Clean Air looking toward the necessity of reducing future auto travel and (2) the growing fuel crisis which, according to Administration spokesmen, will lead to gas rationing within six months and, by 1990, may well render the private automobile as obsolete as the horse and buggy. Furthermore, it should be noted that the proposed six-lane South Leg is designed on the premise that at least 50 percent of the traffic utilizing it would come from two highly controversial (and unapproved) freeways- the [I-66] North Leg Freeway and the [I-266] Three Sisters Bridge."
 (2) the growing fuel crisis which, according to Administration spokesmen, will lead to gas rationing within six months and, by 1990, may well render the private automobile as obsolete as the horse and buggy.

Never-mind the feasibility of alternative fuels, synthetic fuels, alcohol based fuels based upon various forms of bio-mass.   Somehow we were simply going to abandon automobiles in mass rather than admit to the reality that the market would simply shift to alternative liquid fuels.  Or that we could not even consider an Open Fuel Standard, as per the sort of technology seen with the 1963 Chrysler Turbine.  Let alone bring about the mass development and deployment of quite excellent electric and hybrid electric automobiles.

And never-mind even the utter inaccuracy of such predictions, as we are now 25+ years past 1990, and petroleum supplies have become sufficient as to bring about a major drop in petroleum prices, which after spiking to over $100 an barrel are now down to around $30.

Nor the potentially misleading Peter S. Craig characterization about the proposed South Leg's accompanying "highly controversial" freeways, the North Leg and the Three Sisters Bridge.   Though the latter was quite well protested, the North Leg had become far far less controversial before 1973, as per the plans approved by the D.C. City Council, U.S. National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC) and the D.C. Department of Public Works by the late 1960s, replacing the initial highly unpopular version of the North Leg seen in the 1955 Inner Loop report for an extensive new swath along Florida Avenue and U Street, with the alternative promoted by that initial plan's opponents as Elizabeth Rowe of NCPC and the Committee of 100 on the Federal City, of a cross town I-66  Tunnel under K Street NW.

1971 Inner Loop

Nor the characterizations (see underlined) contained within a May 12, 1975 letter by Elizabeth Rowe upon behalf of the Committee of 100 On the Federal City:
Dear Mr. Chairman and Members of the Council:
The Committee of 100 on the Federal City respectively requests early action by the Council on two very pressing transportation matters:  
First the de mapping of unnecessary and unwanted freeways in the District of Columbia through amendment of the city's Comprehensive Plan and appropriate requests to the US Department of Transportation for the removal of such freeways from the Interstate system
Second, the initiation by the Council, in cooperation with the Mayor, of a request to the U.S. Department of Transportation for the transfer of the federal aid formerly earmarked for such freeways (in excess of $1.4 billion) for completion of the presently-authorized Metro rail transit system.
These actions are necessary to implement two very pressing needs: First to remove forever the cloud of destruction and more autos in an auto-chocked city caused by the presence of obsolete freeway plans in the comprehensive plan and on the interstate system; and second, to help meet the escalating costs of construction of the Metro system.
Respectfully submitted,
Mrs. Elizabeth Rowe, Chairman
That letter was accompanied by a letter dated the same day from Peter S. Craig calling for the deletion of every freeway segment that ended up being 'de-mapped', including that of the I-66 K Street Tunnel, upon the grounds that "...This Council already has urged that Virginia abandon I-66 inside the Beltway in Virginia. Consistent with this action, I-66, within the city should also be scrapped."  never-mind that I-66 inside the Beltway was built and opened to traffic by 1982.  See both of these May 12, 1975 letters here.

Notably, the U.S. Federal Highway Administration documents about these 1975-1978 "de-mappings" strangely, show a map of the proposed freeway system, not as approved by U.S. NCPC and the D.C. City Council, such as the 1966 "Low Level" B&O Route North Central Freeway that was close to what the JFK Administration prescribed in 1962, but rather an earlier set of plans featuring the latter (1963+) version of the East Leg to RFK Stadium/East Capitol Street, and the 1967 straight line diagonal tunnel route version of the South Leg, but with the earlier plans for the North Leg, together with the infamous 1964 bastardization of the B&O North Central Freeway, as if the controversy was being stoked within the Federal level.

Rather than address such a strange set of discrepancies though, by asking if and why the U.S. Federal Highway Authority had actually kept these earlier highly unpopular routes as its official plans into the 1970s, the Peter S. Craig letters instead focusing upon simply "de-mapping" the entire yet to be built system, asides from the short extension of the Center Leg north from Massachusetts Avenue to K Street, as a source of obtaining some extra funding for the WMATA system.  Never-mind that the 1962 JFK Administration planning had included both what essentially became the WMATA system and the freeways.

Apparently, at no time, did any of this discussion of any of these "de-mappings" ever ask if they were truly necessary, nor contrast this extra funding for WMATA with the extra costs for reviving any of these freeways at some time in the future, as the purported permanent nature of of such "de-mappings" - as opposed to say simply deferring them -- would translate to a failure to preserve rights of ways/easements from subsequent real estate development situated without regards to their impacts upon such costs.   Consequently, we have seen such real estate development travesties as the blockage of the path of the Center Leg Tunnel northbound on-ramp just to the north of K Street by the irresponsibly located "Golden Rule" apartment building; the current "Capitol Crossing" air rights project that steals half of Center Leg's 8 lane design capacity, various projects irresponsibly built too close to the B&O corridor constricting its expansion, plus that of "The Hampshires" townhouse project upon what was traditionally the open field of the Masonic Eastern Star Home property along the north side of New Hampshire Avenue directly in the path to connect the B&O and PEPCO corridors- with both these latter two projects initially promoted as products of the Jarvis Company.

It would be one thing if planning as that simply involved the highly locally destructive earlier planned routes.

For instance, I don't consider the Takoma Towers apartment building in Takoma Park, Maryland, built in 1972 and located exactly upon the infamous 1964 route deviation, to be a "demolition special" as that's an insane routing location for the North Central Freeway.  Nor would I apply such a term to say something built upon the path of the original North Leg along Florida Avenue and U Street.

Rather, I use that term to describe such projects as:

- Those that intrude upon the Center Leg, as "Golden Rule"The intruding portions of the substructure of "Capitol Crossing".

- Projects in Brookland, D.C. as those directly upon the B&O Route as planned in 1962 and 1966+.  Such as that upon the I-95 portion, as those to the east as a portion of the recent development just south of Rhode Island Avenue, and to the north with the the Douglass Development project to the east at 805-809 Channing Place NE, "Brookland Station" project along 9th Street, whatever is proposed upon the WMATA facility, and the industrial strip further north.  Plus the nearest portion of what was recently built at Fort Totten.  And those to the west upon what is the better idea for routing the southbound lanes -- consider the vista just south of Franklin Street! -- as the "Arts Space" duet, anything along the eastern side of 8th Street, and further south, the MRP proposal to the west, plus something upon the Brookland WMATA facility.

- Those further north along the B&O, whether from the 1960s as the Montgomery Gardens apartments immediately west of the B&O just north of its entry into Washington, D.C., thus pushing both directions of the I-70S (I-270?) North Central Freeway to the east to bring it into conflict with the row of older houses along Takoma Avenue, and currently, with what WMATA is having EYA build upon their facility in Takoma.   And especially that area's projects as "Cedar Crossing" and "Elevation 314" which constrict the B&O corridor in an exceptionally irresponsible manner as potential death traps located within the footprint of a potential de-railment sending heavy freight train cars tumbling downward from a railway that is elevated into these dangerously close wood framed residential buildings.  Past de-railments, one from this elevated railway in 1976, and another from a non elevated segment more than a mile northward in Silver Spring Maryland in 1996 would avoid such potential death, as the former tumbled into Blair Road and the latter into a parking lot, with the respective houses and apartment building being set further away from the railroad.  

- And of course "The Hampshires" townhouse project directly in the path to connect the B&O and PEPCO corridors- the latter being infinitely preferable than the earlier routing via Northwest Branch Park, and the logical option under Federal legislation barring the use of park-lands for highways when there is a reasonable alternative, as in this case, of a 250 foot wide electrical power line right of way- with the combined B&O-PEPCO Route and its connection along the northern side of New Hampshire Avenue constituting the Least Environmentally Damaging Practicable Alternative (LEDPA) for a northern radial highway for Washington, D.C.  Despite this, U.S. National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC) Executive Director Patricia E. Gallagher, AICP, in a decision regarding a proposed re-zoning:
On behalf of the West Group Development Company, LLC and The Jarvis Company, LLC, the District of Columbia Zoning Commission has referred a proposed action for a consolidated Planned Unit Development (PUD) and a map amendment for a residential development for review and comment. The proposed PUD (6000 New Hampshire Avenue, NE is located within the Lamond-Riggs neighborhood in northeast Washington, D.C. on approximately 11.5 acres in Parcel 126/74 and Lot 858 in Square 3719, bounded by Rittenhouse Street, New Hampshire Avenue, Peabody Street, Chillum Place and Sligo Mill Road, NE, and in Lots 69–73, 801, 824 and 826 in Square 3714, bounded by Peabody Street, New Hampshire Avenue and 1st Street, NE. ... [upon] ... the former campus of the Masonic Star Nursing Home and Med-Star Health offices and is currently an open lawn area that is under-developed....
Pursuant to delegations of authority adopted by the Commission on August 6, 1999, I find that the proposed consolidated Planned Unit Development (PUD) and related map amendment for a residential development (6000 New Hampshire Avenue, NE) located in Parcel 126/74 and Lot 858 in Square 3719 bounded by Rittenhouse Street, New Hampshire Avenue, Peabody Street, Chillum Place and Sligo Mill Road, NE and in Lots 69 – 73, 801, 824 and 826 in Square 3714 bounded by Peabody Street, New Hampshire Avenue and 1st Street, NE, Washington, D.C., would not adversely affect any federal interests nor be inconsistent with the Comprehensive Plan for the National Capital.
Such projects most certainly adversely affect the federal interest of an efficient, modern highway system for the Nation's Capital, in particular to provide a mixed use radial freeway within the vast northern Washington, D.C. arc served by no freeways whats-over between the George Washington Parkway in Virginia and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway from Maryland, no interstate freeways from I-66 to the west in Virginia to I-295 from the south in Maryland, and mixed use freeways from I-395 (former I-95) in Virginia to Route 50 from Maryland, as inside the Beltway Virginia I-66 is not open to trucks.

This U.S. NCPC "planning", like that of the 1975+ de-mappings, make no such apparent mention of any of this, nor that the Baltimore-Washington Parkway and the Route 50 Freeway feed into a sole freeway into Washington, D.C.- the antiquated DC 295 Anacostia Freeway, which is both substandard for traffic serviceability and for local connectivity being a conventional surface and elevated facility severing D.C.'s neighborhoods to the east - incidentally its least affluent area - from the Anacostia River waterfront.

All of these projects intrude upon space needed remedying this deplorable status quo, conflicting with vital links to the north necessary as alternative routes as the vital B&O-PEPCO North Central/Northeastern Freeway constructed in a neighborhood friendly fashion as cut and cover tunnelways beneath new linear parks atop to spread the traffic burden, as well as permit closing the existing antiquated-divisive Anacostia Freeway to facilitate its replacement with a modern cut and cover facility to re-unite D.C.'s least affluent neighborhoods with the Anacostia River waterfront. 
The outright "de-Mapping" rather than deferring the freeways, for fiscal and environmental-social justice reasons, should have been defined as criminal.

Thursday, February 25, 2016

The Jarvis Company Subverts Progress For Profit

to push the traffic burden disproportionately upon Washington, D.C.'s less affluent neighborhoods to the east and south of the Anacostia River 

Former D.C. Council-member Charlene Drew Jarvis

Long established D.C. family business - Jarvis Company -
backs ill placed/designed real estate development projects
conflicting with the Least Environmentally Damaging Practicable Alternative (LEDPA) for northern D.C. radial highway, where there is now no such highway, thus shifting traffic burden disproportionately to less affluent areas to the south-east of the Anacostia River.
- "The Hampshires" townhouse development placed directly in the path of connecting the Maryland PEPCO Power Line and the Washington, D.C. B&O corridors for the inside the Beltway extension from I-95, of some 100 new residential dwellings upon what was the open field of the Masonic Eastern Star Home on the northern side of New Hampshire Avenue NE.
- The "Capitol Crossing" Air Rights Project Atop the Downtown I-395 (I-95) Center Leg
that constricts its designed right of way from 4 lanes in each direction plus shoulders by 50% or more to only 2 lanes per direction with apparently reduced shoulders, thus necessitating new parallel tunnels to restore the lost capacity at a likely greater cost than the extra profitability for this real estate project.


Area of Segment To Connect the B&O and PEPCO Corridors 
With Traditionally Open Field of the Masonic Eastern Star Home 
Now Filled with "The Hampshires" townhouses

The 'Capitol Crossing' project for a series of new buildings atop the downtown 'Center Leg' Freeway which would intercept the PEPCO-B&O Route unnecessarily constricts its right of way from its design of 8 traffic lanes plus shoulder to only 4 lanes with pinched down median shoulders.

The Southern Portion of the B&O I-95 Route
With Connection Along New York Avenue To
The Center Leg Freeway, 
Plus Connection to East Leg At Right

Constriction of Center Leg Profile From 8 to 4 Lanes
Although Striped For Only 4 lanes, the Design Is For 8 Lanes In Order To Accommodate
Northern Extension, 
Plus With 1 Additional Northbound Lane 
For Westbound Connection To Cross Town I-66 K Street Tunnel.
Center Leg segments were designed and at least partially built 
prior to the mid 1970s mass 'de-mappings' of the connecting segments

Blocking and constricting these routes helped buttress a status quo placing a disproportionate amount of the traffic burden upon the less affluent areas to the south-east of the Anacostia River.

This status quo, of having no grade separated vehicular radial highways anywhere into Washington, D.C. from the north in the area from George Washington Parkway in Virginia, to the Baltimore-Washington Parkway in Maryland, and no such highways for mixed traffic - that is including trucks and other commercial traffic - from I-395 to the southwest, to Route 50 to the east, encourages express traffic to take the Baltimore-Washington Parkway and Route 50 either to the non freeway surface route of New York Avenue NE to get to the Center Leg, or to the antiquated DC 295 Anacostia Freeway built during the 1950s to either connect with the recently replaced 11th Street Bridge with its new direct connections to the antiquated SE/SW Freeway, or to continue south along I-295.

As DC 295 and I-295 respectively pass along the eastern and southern side of the Anacostia River in SE, before the latter turns south to parallel the Potomac River to ultimately connect with the I-495 Capital Beltway just to the east of the Woodrow Wilson Bridge, through what is Washington, D.C.'s least affluent -- and demographically Blackest -- area, such a status quo of no radial freeways anywhere within Washington, D.C. places a disproportionate amount of express traffic through its poorest, Blackest areas.

Coupled with the antiquated design of DC 295 substandard not only with regards to traffic but also with the idea of reconnecting the localities with the Anacostia River waterfront as a locally divisive surface and elevated freeway rather than as say a cut and cover tunnel beneath a local street network, such a status quo makes a mockery of the 1960s slogan used in the political battle to stop the construction of a North Central Freeway along the B&O corridor in northern D.C. in the vicinity of Catholic University of America (the single largest property in that area) "No White Mans' Roads Through Black Mans' Homes".

The two real estate projects at issue are particularly egregious respectively for blocking the Least Environmentally Damaging Practicable Alternative (LEDPA) for a radial highway into Washington, D.C. from the north- B&O/PEPCO?New Hampshire Avenue, and wasting a significant amount of the existing design capacity of the sole existing freeway route - the Center Leg, so designed sensibly as a tunnel to minimize local impacts - in place to connect with such a route to the north.

The B&O route is what was determined by 1962 to be the best route within Washington, D.C., being the least impactive, being the sole existing grade separated transportation corridor in northern D.C., largely lined with lightly developed industrial properties, and centrally located between the eastern and western portions of the Capital Beltway, where its southern end could connect most practically with east-west and north south freeways near and withing downtown Washington, D.C. with the least impacts.  It was relatively uncontroversial when proposed under the administration of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1962, but would become highly controversial -- aka opposed -- following the planning manipulations cir 1963-1967 where the planning seriously deviated.   The JFK Administration report dated November 1, 1962, Recommendations for TRANSPORTATION in the NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION Finance and Organization A Report to the President for transmittal to Congress by the NATIONAL CAPITAL TRANSPORTATION AGENCY, made the strict prescription that the north-south segment strictly hug the B&O Railroad.  Reportedly an engineering study was to be released in 1963, and JFK's interest in improved planning, along with contemporaneous planning efforts in his native Boston for a segment of that city's proposed Inner Loop Freeway with at least one segment within a tunnel box beneath a pedestrian promenade might have pointed to such a design approach for the I-95 B&O Route North Central Freeway, particularly in the area where it would have passed alongside its neighboring single largest property- Catholic University of America.

Yet no such study would be released before JFK's November 22, 1963 assassination, and the study that would be released in October 1964 disregarded any such ideas, with conventional design freeways all over the map and with a recommended route generally along the B&O but with serious route deviations in Brookland, D.C. and to the north (for the I-70S segment) cutting all new swaths through charming older residential neighbors displacing some 471 houses in Takoma Park, Maryland for a route that was longer and out of the way!   The understandable and justified opposition to that led to a "supplementary" report for the North Central Freeway being released in November 1966 that was generally faithful to the JFK Administration's B&O Route Concept. To its credit, the 1966 plan added some cut and cover tunnel segments for the I-70S B&O Route segment where it entered D.C. from Montgomery County, Maryland at the edge of Blair Park, though it in-explicitly introduced a new routing deviation absent with the 1964 recommended route, at the junction of the Fort Drive I-95 link from Maryland with the B&O, with a bulge a few hundred feet westward into Fort Totten Park.

Nonetheless, the 1966 "Low Level" B&O Route resulted in significantly reduced popular opposition to the freeway, with a 1967 letter by Takoma Park resident Duncan Wall noting that the controversy "had been somewhat quiescent" prior to the actions of the then newly founded U.S. Federal Highway Authority to withdraw from any commitment to the 1966 plan by announcing their intent to re-open the planning process to consider options from the 1964 report as ostensibly "cheaper".  The subsequent re-surge of popular opposition would thus lead to the U.S.National Capital Planning Commission reversing its traditional support for the North Central and Northeast Freeways by the end of 1968.

Though talk by officials about possibly reverting to the 1964 planning subsequently ceased, and a 1970 design revision by the D.C. Department of Public Works to reduce the I-95 B&O North Central Freeway dwelling displacement in Brookland from 69 to 34, political opposition had by then been sufficiently stoked, leading to a February 17, 1970 D.C. City Council vote against the B&O Route North Central Freeway. In response, a new study would be commissioned for release in 1971, with discussions of better integrating it into the area with a greater use of decking -- essentially construction of segments as cut and cover tunnels -- featuring new local community amenities including new housing atop, along with a re-thinking of the connecting I-95 Northeastern Freeway segment leading to the consideration and adaptation for the latter of the PEPCO/New Hampshire Avenue Route.

The PEPCO/New Hampshire Avenue Route -- as the PEPCO corridor itself extends for about 4.2 miles inside the Capital Beltway before ending just south of Ray Road in the vicinity of New Hampshire Avenue about 1,600 feet before the Maryland-District of Columbia line that is about that same distance from the B&O Corridor -- was likewise so acknowledged by the early 1970s as the best option for the segment linking the B&O Route within D.C. through western Prince Georges County, Maryland to the I-95 interchange at the Capital Beltway; the 1971 DeLuew, Cather Weese Study would suggest it as far superior to the routing planned since the 1950s via the headwaters of the Anacostia River- Northwest Branch Park, initially pared in the 1960 Northeastern Freeway Engineering Study with a diagonal route within Washington, D.C. skirting Catholic Sisters College properties before its cir.1963 replacement with the Fort Drive Route between Gallatan and Galloway Streets NE. Although later planning for the Northwest Branch Park-Fort Drive I-95 Route included some cut and cover tunnel segments, the PEPCO alternative was deemed superior for a number of reasons:

- using an already clear cutted of trees 250 foot wide power line transmission corridor, thus almost entirely avoiding parkland while saving many trees

- providing superior geometry for the entry into D.C. for a tunneled connector spur to North Capital Street and to east-west Missouri Street.

- retaining an option geometrically feasible to construct almost the entire route in a depressed below ground level configuration thus reducing its local impacts while providing ultimate opportunity for adding various segments with a "roof" thus converting such to cut and cover tunnel segments.

- having a southern terminus a mere 1,600 feet from the Maryland-District line, which itself was another some 1,600 feet from the B&O corridor, thus placing it just east of the New Hampshire Avenue corridor which is lightly developed strip retail in Maryland, and residential within D.C.  To avoid the power substation at the PEPCO corridor's southern end, the freeway would then cross to New Hampshire Avenue's western (southbound) side, avoiding the sole larger office building along this strip, and within D.C. be situated to displace fewer dwellings - traditionally only abut 27 1940s construction houses - owing to the presence of the large open field of the masonic Eastern Star Home itself set conveniently far enough to the north as to not block the freeway's path, which would be depressed below ground level (and thus feasible to construct as as an unobtrusive cut and cover tunnel with the field, the dwellings and the commercial area all restored- a point insufficiently if at all stressed by the 1971 report). 

- to reduce the impacts upon the area at and near the southern end of the PEPCO corridor where the topography descends into a valley, the 1971 report proposed that the freeway would have a cut and cover tunnel segment beneath that valley, from a point to the north of Ray Road extending southerly to cross to the west side of New Hampshire Avenue.

- by employing the PEPCO right of way, this route would have displaced 0 dwellings within Maryland for the freeway mainline, though about 110 dwellings for the interchanges as then conceived.

The subsequent planning report addressing the PEPCO-New Hampshire Avenue Route, the Prince Georges County Transportation report from 1973 made a number of changes:

- it eliminated the idea of the tunnel at the southern terminus of the PEPCO corridor as too expensive, requiring too much excavation for the lengthy approaches that would have been geometrically required for dropping the freeway beneath the valley, instead substituting an elevated segment crossing over New Hampshire Avenue that would have required inferior horizontal geometry thus introducing a 55 mph design speed segment within what was otherwise a 70 mph design speed freeway.

- it added the idea of a cut and cover tunnel segment, 700 feet in length, to carry it hidden where it would cross Northwest Branch Park.

- it changed the design of the interchanges with reduced footprint to eliminate the residential displacement within Maryland.

- it changed the 4 lane in each direction 4/4 configuration to a triple 2/2/2 configuration with the middle roadway being reversible, thus offering significantly less capacity (25% less total, or 50% less in one direction) while being virtually the same overall width, owing to the extra shoulders.

- it made a variety of proposals anticipating/accommodating the political blockage of the continuation into Washington, D.C., such as having it only as a mixed use (trucks and commercial traffic permitted) freeway from the Capital Beltway to the interchange with Route 193/University Boulevard, and then further south to Route 410/East West Highway as a "Parkway" (excluding trucks and commercial traffic), with any further continuation as a Busway.

All of this would be for naught with the generated opposition to the B&O Route within D.C., hence Maryland Governor Hughes would announce the cancellation of formal consideration for the PEPCO Route announced July 16, 1973.

The Feds would formally "de-map" the D.C. B&;O segment and its connecting segments to the north and to the north-east in 1975.  That June 27, D.C. Mayor Walter E. Washington formally requested these deletions consisting of 5.4 miles from the Interstate System, and that October 3, Federal Highway Administrator Norbert T. Tiemann and Urban Mass Transportation Administrator Robert E. Patricelli approved the request.  This was done under the provisions of 23 U.S.C. 103(e)(4), as the first under the 1970s "de-mapping" craze that by then was being primarily sold as a means of gathering additional funding for constructing the WMATA Rail Transit Network, never-mind that the 1962 JFK plan had included both freeways and rail transit.

To the south, the B&O Route North Central Freeway - briefly renamed as the Northeastern Freeway with the pre 1973 decision by Maryland to cancel the I-70S segment - was to connect with "Interchange B" at the railyards to the north of New York Avenue, that was to connect with 3 freeways:

- the "North Leg- East" that would then connect with the Center Leg that was already completed to the south side of Massachusetts Avenue, and opened to traffic on November 5, 1973, and continue further west via the "North Leg-West" as the I-66 K Street Tunnel,

- the "East Leg" that would continue to RFK Stadium before turning south and west along the northern side of the Anacostia Freeway to continue into the eastern end of the SE Freeway at Pennsylvania Avenue/Barney Circle that had been completed by 1974

- the New York Avenue Industrial Freeway continuing to the east to the Route 50 Freeway in Maryland.

The position of the D.C. City Council following the late 1960s reversal of support for the B&O Route North Central Freeway had been to remain in favor of constructing the downtown northern and eastern portions of the Inner Loop and the New York Avenue Industrial Freeway.  However, following the artificially induced gasoline shortages in late 1973, escalating arguments, such as that such fuel shortages somehow meant that "by 1990, may well render the private automobile as obsolete as the horse and buggy", would be successfully employed to "de-map" all of the remaining planned freeway segments except the short extension of the Center Leg northwards from Massachusetts Avenue to K Street NW, upon which construction started in 1975, with a design to accommodate the connecting freeway segments.

Indeed for a time during the mid 1970s, the idea was to continue I-95 through Washington, D.C. via the Center Leg to the "North Leg- East" as a cut and cover tunnel along the northern side of New York Avenue to just east of North Capitol Street, and continuing east via a New York Avenue Industrial Freeway towards the interchange with Maryland Route 50, with I-95 there transitioning to a rebuilt Baltimore Washington Parkway to Laurel Maryland with a new connector to existing I-95.

The idea of using a portion of the Baltimore-Washington Parkway for I-95 would be formally dropped in 1976.

Although the I-66 K Street Tunnel had been the plan initially promoted by opponents to the previous version of the cross-town I-66 "North Leg- East" from the 1955 Inner Loop report for a new swath displacing a significant number of buildings paralleling Florida Avenue and U Streets, it was among the first of the subsequent freeway segments following that of the B&O North Central/Northeast Freeway, to fall pry to the 1970s "de-mapping" craze- the other being the theatrically protested I-266 3 Sisters Bridge.  D.C. Mayor Walter E. Washington would formally request that action on December 29, 1976, which was approved on April 29, 1977, by Federal Highway Administrator William M. Cox and Urban Mass Transportation Acting Administrator Charles F. Bingman, again under the provisions of 23 U.S.C. 103(e)(4).

By 1978, construction upon the Center Leg segment, with its cut and cover tunnel from Massachusetts Avenue to K Street, was essentially complete, when, according to Steve Anderson's DC Roads, "... all that needed to be done was asphalt, electrical, and tiling work in the tunnel - when the District ran out of funds.  A break in the impasse came in 1984 when Mayor Marion Barry designated $6.5 million in surplus District and Federal construction funds to complete the remaining work on the Center Leg tunnel. The two northbound lanes of the extension opened to traffic on December 15, 1986, while the two southbound lanes opened on February 6, 1987. Including land takings and air rights, the Center Leg extension cost $84 million to build in 1987 dollars."

That project, started with a design to accommodate both the connections to the west (I-66) and to the north-east, included a design alteration with its 1984-1986 completion of a pair of non-load bearing walls narrowing it to only 2 travel lanes in each direction, with the outboard lanes converted into storage areas.  Though despite the obvious option of a continuation to the east via a New York Avenue Industrial Freeway to Maryland Route 50, without using the connecting segment of the Baltimore-Washington Parkway as an interstate highway, both the "North Leg-East" and the "East Leg" segments totally 4.7 miles would be "de-mapped" by 1978, so formally requested that August 7 by Mayor Walter E. Washington, and then on September 8, approved by Federal Highway Administrator Karl S. Bowers and Urban Mass Transportation Administrator Richard S. Page.   This was done despite the clear need to extend the underground freeway at least to the east of North Capitol Street, a mere one block from the junction of the B&O and New York Avenue railroad industrial corridors, thus leaving the Center Leg ending at the traffic light intersection at 4th Street and New York Avenue NW, thus placing freeway levels of traffic upon the residential area along that Avenue and further east.

Such a decision was sufficiently unpopular to lead to a 1996 proposal through the D.C. Mayor's Office under then Mayor Marian Berry, who had been previously active with the 1960s-early 1970s anti freeway group Emergency Committee on the Transportation Crisis, for a vehicular tunnel connecting the Center Leg to the north-east, not alongside but rather directly beneath New York Avenue, thus avoiding displacing buildings (600+ for the 1971 plan, plus 148 for the segment westerly to connect with the K Street Tunnel segment of I-66), to either just east of North Capitol Street, or further to the vicinity of 7th Street NE.  This proposal was alternatively known as the "Ron Linton" plan, and in 1996 included a set of underground ramps to the west to the then not yet constructed D.C. Convention Center.  Its idea to place the tunnel entirely beneath New York Avenue required a curved transition to and from the Center Leg wrapping around the rear side of the Bibleway Church complex with a radii presenting a substandard geometry, and perhaps for that reason might not have been designated as an interstate highway.  This proposal would have only provided 2 lanes in each direction, despite the Center Leg's design for greater capacity, and that of the width of the New York Avenue right of way being sufficient for at least a 6 lane interstate highway with full shoulders.  The plan view shown in the 1996 report would be somewhat murky about the exact configuration of the underground ramp from the northbound Center Leg west to the Convention Center, alas with zero consideration for actual stubs for a revived K Street Tunnel project.  The 1996 proposal would be followed by a D.C. Department of Transportation option for a version of the short tunnel to transition to an overpass carrying express traffic over Florida Avenue, as well as a longer tunnel extending to the intersection with Montana Avenue NE. 

The general idea of a vehicular tunnel from the Center Leg via the New York Avenue would receive an apparent majority of local public support, particularly for the long and longer versions for separating non-local/express distance traffic from the surface.  Yet it would be subverted, particularly regarding the long and longer versions by the authorities only considering such located directly beneath New York Avenue rather than the less disruptive to traffic and more potentially profitable option of alongside the Avenue once east of North Capital Street, taking advantage of the band of lightly developed commercial and industrial properties, including a strip of parking lots, which could then feature a linear park and new real estate development and even an adjacent tunnel box for a parallel WMATA rail transit line extending partially over the railroad chasm to the east of the B&O.   A study report ordered by the U.S. National Capital Planning Commission would go further in disregarding local sentiment by opposing any tunneled connection to the Center Leg with doctrinaire statements against accommodating regional automobile traffic, coupled with arguments that such traffic should either be discouraged altogether or simply diverted to the antiquated DC 295 Anacostia Freeway along the eastern side of the Anacostia through Washington, D.C.'s least affluent areas, with of course no regard for at least reconstructing that freeway as a cut and cover tunnel, both to modernize it for traffic while improving local access to the waterfront.  Indeed, though that USNCPC report would fail to recommend any such improvements for DC 295, it included an additional traffic to further divert traffic into that less affluent area by including the suggestion to close the Center Leg's 1975-1986 constructed northernmost segment, with the argument that such traffic should take the antiquated DC 295 freeway to the the new connections to be included with the then being planned replacement 11th Street Bridges. 

That project, completed since, would take a further decision to place a greater traffic burden upon the less affluent areas to the east and the south of the Anacostia River, by eliminating the direct freeway connection to the SE Freeway segment extending easterly from the 11th Street Bridges to Pennsylvania Avenue to the north and west of the Anacostia River.  The current planning for that now stranded easternmost SE Freeway segment includes threats to amplify this social injustice by further reducing its traffic flow capacity.  This is ostensibly for the sake of accommodating new real estate development.  However this planning includes at least one variant potentially offering the best of all worlds of erecting a lid atop this current freeway segment to extend the raised topography to the north southward towards the Anacostia River to accommodate new parkland and development, though alas with the existing freeway re-purposed as an underground.parking area for tour buses, rather than as an express connection at least to Barney Circle, or better yet as such a coverway to RFK Stadium-East Capitol Street.

Cover This While Keeping It As A Freeway,
And Extend At Least to RFK Stadium-East Capital Street!

Such a box tunnel freeway continuation, with a local road and promenade atop would serve to improve local pedestrian access to the north-western bank of the Anacostia, while providing an alternative vehicular road to divert some traffic from the existing antiquated surface-elevated DC 295 Freeway to thus facilitate its reconstruction in a new cut and cover tunnel to both better accommodate the additional traffic encouraged by the new 11th Street Bridge's direct connections to the SE/SW freeway and to likewise tremendously improve the local accessibility upon that eastern bank of the Anacostia.  But alas, the planning is way too heavily shewed to favor the more affluent neighborhoods to the west, to bother considering the less affluent ones to the east. 

Such is the very type of social injustice planning being supported by that pair of highly questionable real estate development planning decisions undertaken via the Jarvis Company- (1) to construct a new residential townhouse development "The Hampshires" of some 110 units directly in the path of the connecting segment of the Least Environmentally Damaging Practical Alternative Route for a northern Washington, D.C. radial highway; and (2) to construct an air rights project "Capitol Crossing" atop the downtown existing intercepting freeway segment for a route to the north with a design that fails to respect its full 8 lane design capacity, reducing that by essentially half, wasting such capacity for increased developer profit with zero consideration of the cost of making up such capacity with a parallel set of freeway tunnels, while furthermore eliminating an existing off-ramp with zero consideration of the costs of a replacement that would be needed with such a direct freeway continuation beyond the Center Leg's current terminus at New York Avenue and 4th Streets.  

The Jarvis Company web-site admits to their involvement with these real estate development projects:


6000 New Hampshire Avenue, NE, Washington, DC

The Hampshires, located in the Lamond Riggs section of Northeast Washington, DC, is a newly-constructed and unique community of 38 single-family homes and 73 townhomes. The Hampshires features exciting floor plans, contemporary finishes, and up to 2,700 square feet of living space. In conjunction with partner Four Points, LLC, The Jarvis Company acquired and completed the entitlement development of the site before turning over the construction and marketing of the new homes to local home builder Comstock.




Land and Airspace Above I-395
Massachusetts Avenue, 2nd and 3rd Streets, E Street, NW, Washington, DC

Capitol Crossing will be a 2.2 million square foot, multi-phase development, primarily office space, in the East End in Northwest Washington, DC. This complex development project, which will infill the air rights above the I-395 Center Leg Freeway and re-connect the street grid at F and G Streets to how it was designed by Pierre L’Enfant, will offer tenants the unique ability to grow and expand in LEED Platinum, trophy buildings. Property Group Partners is the primary developer. The Jarvis Company is a developer/investor in the project.

About the Jarvis Company:

The Jarvis Company, LLC is primarily engaged in the real estate investment and development business. The company also provides strategic advisory and development consulting services; engages in retail and hospitality operations; and makes equity investments in real estate and other ventures on a project-by-project basis. It owns interests in various mixed-use, commercial, and residential real estate development projects in the District of Columbia, as well as retail units at Reagan National and Dulles airports. The company was founded in 1999 and is based in Washington, District Of Columbia.
About the History of the Jarvis Company on their web site:

History of the Jarvis Family

Reverend William Daniel Jarvis

Reverend Dr. William D. Jarvis was a founder and the first pastor of New Bethel Baptist Church (1903 – 1940). In 1915, the New Bethel congregation held its first worship service at the church’s current site, located at 9th and S Streets, NW. Rev. Jarvis retired from New Bethel in 1940, leaving a rich legacy of Christian outreach and service. Washington, DC's first elected Congressman, Rev. Walter E. Fauntroy, was the pastor of New Bethel for 50 years, building on the legacy of service and community inclusion initiated by Rev. Jarvis.

Wm. Ernest Jarvis

In 1900, Wm. Ernest Jarvis founded The Jarvis Funeral Home, which was first located at 2222 Georgia Avenue, NW (across the street from Howard University) and then later relocated to 1432 U Street, NW, at the center of the primary business corridor of the day for black-owned businesses.  Jarvis Funeral Home became a mainstay provider for many prominent African-American families when the time came to bury a loved one.

Norman O. Jarvis

The next generation of the Jarvis family was led by Norman O. Jarvis, who served as the principal undertaker for the Jarvis Funeral Home and who also served the District of Columbia as a member of the Judicial Nominating Commission (appointed by President Richard Nixon), the DC Board of Funeral Directors, and a DC Delegate to the Republican National Conventions (1960, 1964, 1968).

Councilmember Charlene Drew Jarvis

In 1979, Charlene Drew Jarvis was elected to the District of Columbia City Council, as the representative of Ward 4, where she served for 21 years.  During that service, Councilmember Jarvis was the Chairperson of the Council’s Economic Development Committee, overseeing much of the important business activity and regulation in the city.  Her work on behalf of the city established the foundation for much of the resurgence that the District of Columbia is currently experiencing.

Charlene Drew Jarvis (born July 31, 1941 in Washington, D.C.,[1] as Charlene Rosella Drew) is an American educator and former scientific researcher and politician who served as the president of Southeastern University until March 31, 2009.[2] Jarvis is the daughter of the blood plasma and blood transfusion pioneer Charles Drew.[3]


Jarvis earned her Bachelor of Arts degree from Oberlin College in 1962, a Master of Science degree in psychology from Howard University in 1964, and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in neuropsychology from the University of Maryland, College Park, in 1971.[1][4]

Ward 4's representative to the Council of the District of Columbia, Arrington Dixon, won the election for chairman of the council in November 1978, leaving the Ward 4 seat vacant. Jarvis won the special election to fill the seat on May 1, 1979. She was then reelected to the council in 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, and 1996. Jarvis sought reelection again in 2000, but she was defeated in the Democratic primary by Adrian Fenty who also holds degrees from Oberlin and Howard University.[5][6][7]

So sad particularly that an African-American family business that worked to place a disproportionate traffic burden in Washington, D.C.'s least affluent areas for the sake of a political agenda to push such away from the areas of the largest Roman Catholic school properties.

Residents of Washington, D.C. in particular ought to actively protest at various Jarvis Company facilities, asking those involved with such decisions if they were even aware of the broader picture of the ramifications.

How to reach us:

William Jarvis
The Jarvis Company, LLC
2600 Virginia Avenue, NW, Suite 202